Scientists make fantastic find — A “fossil graveyard” that holds many keys to Earth’s past

A team of paleontologists has potentially made the find of the century, having discovered a fossil graveyard that they say contains “extraordinary evidence” that the asteroid that smashed into the Earth 66 million years ago is responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs. The remarkable findings are all part of a study published by PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America).

The New Yorker was one of the first publications to run with this amazing story; however, it seems the article itself doesn’t jibe with the study’s findings.

LiveScience’s Senior Writer Mindy Weisberger didn’t fail to notice this.

“The New Yorker recently described a so-called dinosaur graveyard as holding the remains of dinosaur fossils, including hatchlings; it caused quite a buzz in the media,” she writes. “But even though the site is potentially ground-breaking, the New Yorker article is out of step with the study describing the find.”

The article paints the picture of a graveyard filled with Pterosaurs, small mammals, and “almost every dinosaur group known from Hell Creek,” at the site, in North Dakota’s Hell Creek formation. But in the study, the paleontologists — from the University of Kansas and the University of Manchester — make no mention of finding dinosaurs, save for one isolated and incomplete hipbone.

In their study, the researchers describe a deposit that’s about three feet thick (about 1.3 meters) and full of fossils of freshwater fish, ammonites (extinct relatives of the modern-day nautilus), animal burrows, and plenty of vegetation.

And that means the site is a treasure trove for paleontologists, a virtual zoo of Cretaceous creatures that were buried all at once, Weisberger notes. The fossils are a “motherlode of exquisitely preserved animal and fish fossils,” according to a study published Monday, CNN reports.

When the asteroid plowed into Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula 66 million years ago it created the famous Chicxulub Crater. One of the most destructive events in Earth’s history, it wiped out an estimated 75 percent of plant and animals species worldwide.

And the asteroid struck with such force that it triggered massive tsunami-like surges and pelted the planet with torrents of rocks in the form of fine sand and glass beads.

“A tsunami would have taken at least 17 or more hours to reach the site from the crater, but seismic waves — and a subsequent surge — would have reached it in tens of minutes,” said paleontologist Robert DePalma, the study’s lead author.

The calamity left behind “a tangled mass of freshwater fish, terrestrial vertebrates, trees, branches, logs, marine ammonites, and other marine creatures,” said DePalma, a doctoral student from the University of Kansas.

“No other site has a record quite like that,” he said. “And this particular event is tied directly to all of us — to every mammal on Earth, in fact. Because this is essentially where we inherited the planet. Nothing was the same after that impact. It became a planet of mammals rather than a planet of dinosaurs.”

And when the asteroid hit, it signaled the end of the Cretaceous period (145.5 million years ago to 65.5 million years ago) and the beginning of the Paleogene. Sandwiched between layers of Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks, the densely packed fossils show these creatures all died at once.

“Their presence there, and the presence of all the other details in sediments is helping us to tease out all the little, tiny details that occurred in the first moments after the impact that were unclear before this discovery,” DePalma said.

A “Raiders of The Lost Ark” fan, DePalma named the site “Tanis” the city that, in the movie, hid the famous Ark of The Covenant.

A partial fish fossil found at the site. Photo by Robert DePalma via LiveScience

More than 50 percent of the freshwater fish found at the site died bearing tiny glass balls (called spherules) embedded in their gills. The entire site, in fact, was riddled with spherules that ranged in size from 0.01 to 0.06 inches (0.03 to 1.4 millimeters) in diameter. Also called tektites, these glass beads were formed by droplets of melted rock which were flung into the atmosphere as a result of the asteroid’s impact. Within minutes they plummeted earthward. Fish and other creatures at the site inhaled and choked on the tektites and were subsequently buried by debris, the researchers said.

This micro-CT image shows a cutaway of a clay-altered spherule complete with an internal core of unaltered impact glass. Image by Robert DePalma via LiveScience

And the spherules were also found embedded and perfectly preserved in amber associated with tree trunks and branches, leading the researchers to believe the spherules and the fish were buried at the same time.

An enormous 34-foot wave followed, surging into the river’s valley from the sea, carrying sand and mud that buried the hapless creatures and plants. Flowing from West to East, the water surged in the opposite direction of the river’s flow. And this is why the scientists know the mass deaths weren’t caused by typical flooding.

Tree logs and fish carcasses were strewn together at Tanis. Image by Robert DePalma via LiveScience

The only thing that could create the mass deposit was a tsunami, or possibly a seiche (an enormous wave that forms in large bodies of water) the researchers said. And that was likely caused by seismic waves created by the asteroid’s impact.

All around the world dozens of sites exhibit a geologic layer that marks the end of the Cretaceous period. These layers are also rich in spherules and minerals that fell to Earth after the impact. And they serve as a sharp contrast between global diversity as numerous species of plants and animals disappeared at the end of the Cretaceous, said Kirk Johnson, director of the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History in Washington D.C. in an interview with LiveScience.

But what makes the Tanis site so marvelous is that it really is like a snapshot in time, preserving a moment “during the catastrophe itself,” said Johnson, who wasn’t involved in the study.

“That’s the incredible thing about this,” he said. “It gives you some texture on what was happening on the day when the asteroid hit.”

For DePalma, it opens a window into what can happen during a global extinction event, and possibly offer clues on how to deal with the extinction event we’re faced with now.

“If we can understand how the world responds to things like that, we can understand how we might begin to deal with an extinction-level event today,” he said.

The Cretaceous was, in so many ways, different than the world today. But like today, it was full of beautiful and diverse species all tasked with facing down extinction. It will be fascinating to see what the scientists learn and if we will be able to use this knowledge to protect Earth’s precious biodiversity.

Featured image by Robert DePalma via LiveScience

This is how matter can be both liquid and solid at the same time

It’s not every day we learn about a new state of physical matter, but today is such a day. Rather than your typical solid, gas, or liquid, scientists have confirmed a new “chain-melted state” that is simultaneously solid and liquid at the same time. The state is thermodynamically stable, and a new discovery. It’s also quite weird.

Now consider that this exotic and improbable-sounding matter has been inside our bodies all along. It’s a newly discovered state of potassium atoms, an alkali metal first isolated from the ashes of plants. Potassium is an electrolyte that helps your nerves to function and allows your muscles to contract. It helps your heart to beat and facilitates moving nutrients in and out of cells.

“Potassium is one of the simplest metals we know, yet if you squeeze it, it forms very complicated structures,” explained the study coauthor.

The atoms of potassium can be changed under high pressure and temperature to this new state. This state could occur within the Earth’s mantle right now but is improbable since potassium is not usually found in a pure form. In fact, most of the matter (as we know it) in the universe exists under high temperature and pressure, inside stars and planets. This means that chain-melted dual-state matter could exists just about everywhere.

The study was presented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science by coauthor, Andreas Hermann of the University of Edinburgh.

“It’s kind of strange,” says Hermann. “It would be like holding a sponge filled with water that starts dripping out, except the sponge is also made of water,” he says.

Imagine holding a sponge that is both a liquid and solid at once, and you can see why it’s slightly mind-bending. This new state of matter could have a wide range of applications. According to Metro, the researchers believe about six other elements, including sodium and bismuth, are capable of existing in this new state.

According to National Geographic, the discovery was not made by human beings, but by an artificial intelligence machine.

“Hermann and his colleagues turned to simulations to find out, using what’s known as a neural network—an artificial intelligence machine that learns how to predict behavior based on prior examples. After being trained on small groups of potassium atoms, the neural network learned quantum mechanics well enough to simulate collections containing tens of thousands of atoms.”

Scientists have known for many years that metals similar to potassium change their molecular structure in surprising ways when compressed. Another similar common metal, sodium changes from an orderly structure to a complex crystal formation that becomes transparent.

See an experiment that changed sodium  below (do not try at home):

Like sodium, potassium changes under high temperature and pressure in an elaborate way. Researchers argue about what actually happens as the atoms form latticed X shapes with separate chains that disappear as the temperature climbs. The chains convert to liquid while the X shaped crystals of potassium remain in solid form.

See more below:


Featured image: Screenshot via YouTube

We just got our first black hole photos, and they are good

Though many might not know it, we’ve actually never seen a black hole before. When you think of black hole photos, you’re usually remembering artistic renderings based on the underlying science. With astronomy, this is generally the case. As with things like Planet Nine, we can usually detect an item’s effect on the space around it before we know for sure if something is there or what it is.

That all changed today.

According to BBC, researchers have been working feverishly on the accomplishment as far back as 1993:

“Prof [Heino] Falcke [of Radboud University in the Netherlands] … had the idea for the project when he was a PhD student in 1993. At the time, no one thought it was possible.”

The project required Falcke to argue his case for 20 years, and he eventually got funding for it — a cool 40 million EUR (nearly $45 million).

black hole photoCredit: EHT Collaboration

What do we know about the black hole photos?

The numbers associated with the black hole defy the imagination and scarcely count as conceivable.

We know that the black hole is in a distant galaxy called M87, roughly 500 million trillion kilometers away, and that the photo was taken with the help of no less than eight telescopes around the world.

The black hole itself is estimated to be three million times the size of Earth (40 billion km across).

Where can I find more info?

The findings were published in Astrophysical Journal Letters, an express scientific journal that allows astrophysicists to rapidly publish short notices of significant original research. This means you’ll not only be able to keep up with this story, but also with any ongoing developments.

What have we learned?

According to Dr. Falcke, black holes are one of the most challenging celestial bodies from a research standpoint — but also the most rewarding:

“Although they are relatively simple objects, black holes raise some of the most complex questions about the nature of space and time, and ultimately of our existence,” he said.

black hole photoDr. Jean Lorre/Science Photo Library

Though there is still much to learn, these black hole photos propel us further in our understanding of the cosmos than we’ve ever gone before.

Feature image provided via EHT Collaboration

8 Unexplained Archaeological Discoveries That May Have Otherworldly Explanations

Archaeological discoveries are exciting and help contribute to our understanding of various events that have happened in the history of our world.

What happens when something is discovered that we cannot explain?

These discoveries happen and often leave archaeologists scratching their heads, wondering where these items came from and how they formed.

We have put together some of the unexplained archaeological discoveries in the past, and where they are located, so you can start putting together your hypotheses.

Unexplained Archaeological Discoveries

As we start to dig into some of the unexplained discoveries, we discovered that there were hundreds of unsolved mysteries, so we included 8 of the most interesting discoveries and theories we could find.

Costa Rica Stone Spheres

One of the first unexplained archaeological discoveries was in the early 1930s when scientists discovered numerous stone spheres along the Diquis Delta in Costa Rica.

The spheres all ranged in size – ranging from centimeters to over two meters and weighing up to 16 tons. They appear to have been carved from granite, and other types of rocks and are believed to date back to between 200 BC and 1600 CE.

Simply studying a photo of what the spheres look like can be quite striking because they appear to be nearly perfect in shape and look smooth to the touch.

This is surprising because they are so old, and you would think by looking at them that they would appear to have aged or collected dust or rockiness over time.

They were initially discovered when farmers were clearing forests to plant banana crops, and the farmers were amazed at how smooth the surface of the spheres was.

Some of the tales that have been told regarding how the spheres were formed include that they originated in Atlantis, that they were created by nature, and that native inhabitants used a potion to soften already-formed rocks.

Despite numerous tales being told, it is still not known why they were created or where they came from.

Atlantis

Speaking of the lost city of Atlantis, you have probably heard stories regarding this lost civilization and how it originated.

As the stories say, the city is said to have originated in 355 BC by the Greek philosopher Plato, who was planning to write a series of books regarding how the city was started.

While Plato never went on to write the stories, all we must go off of is what he told to others regarding what he believed to be true.

If we were to assume this was a real place, some people believe it would be located near the Azores Islands in the center of the Atlantic Ocean.

Other people believe it could be located somewhere in Spain or that it is related to the fall of the Minoan civilization.

Could this place be real? Where do you think it was located?

Stonehenge

One of the seven wonders of the world, Stonehenge is located in Europe, and it is not known exactly how or why it was formed or what it was used for.

It is believed that people traveled thousands of miles to visit the stones due to the presence of animal bones near the structure, but scientists do not know why they would do so.

The stones weigh between four and eight tons each and originate back to 5,000 years ago.

Some scientists believe that it served as a cemetery or a “place for the dead,” but this has not been confirmed.

Nasca Lines

The Nasca Lines are located on the Peruvian coast, just south of Lima, Peru. They are a large collection of giant geoglyphs, or designs carved into the ground, and depict all types of animals, plants, and other shapes.

Since they are so massive and carved into the ground, they can only be seen for what they are when someone is observing them from the air.

Although they have been studied by scientists and researchers for over 80 years, they are still a mystery as far as how they originated or what they mean.

In 2011, a team of researchers discovered a new geoglyph that depicted a decapitation and is believed to represent Nasca people, who were known to collect heads as trophies.

As of 2018, researchers have continued to discover new geoglyphs in the area, and it is still a mystery what they mean or who they were meant to communicate with when they were formed.

The Great Pyramids of Egypt

Perhaps one of the most interesting and unexplained archaeological discoveries is the location of the Great Pyramids of Egypt.

The pyramids are said to be the source of curses, mysterious deaths, and injuries, as well as underground tunnels and booby traps.

One of the primary mysteries that keeps researchers guessing is how these massive pyramids were built, as they have remained intact for over 4,000 years and weigh several tons.

There are many theories regarding why the pyramids were built, but as of now, nothing has yet to be confirmed, and they remain a mystery.

The Khatt Shebib

Initially discovered in 1948, the Khatt Shebib is a stone wall that extends over 93 miles. Researchers do not know why the wall was built or who built it, but after studying its structure, they believe it was built between 312 BC and 106 AD.

Since the wall was built very low to the ground, it is not believed to have been used for defensive purposes, but it was clearly meant to be a type of boundary to prevent someone or something from getting into the area.

Researchers may never know what the purpose of the wall was or who built it. Which means this will likely remain an unexplained archaeological discovery throughout time.

The Big Circles

Also located in Jordan, near the Khatt Shebib, the Big Circles are made up of 12 giant circular stone structures spread across Jordan and Syria.

They were initially discovered in 1920 by a pilot who flew across Jordan and took photos of the mysterious stone structures.

When he first reported his findings, many people ignored his discovery, and it took an additional 60 years before people began to take notice of the findings and started to question their origin.

The circles are made from stone and are only a few feet high but measure up to 1,200 feet in width.

Some researchers believe that the stones could date back to 2,000 years, but it could be longer.

After they were initially discovered, some people believed they were built to contain animals, but they are thought to be too short and would not have prevented animals from escaping.

To this day, it is still not known why they were built and what they were used for. Another circle was recently discovered in Syria.

The Upton Chamber Cave

Located in Boston, Massachusetts, the Upton Stone Chamber Cave has a 14-foot entrance tunnel and is topped with a large capstone.

While no artifacts have been discovered inside the chamber, what is most interesting about it is that it aligns perfectly with the sun on Summer Solstice.

While it was obviously built with astronomical significance, it is not known when it was built or what it was used for and remains a mystery.

Unsolved Mysteries

These unexplained discoveries are only a few of the archaeological mysteries that have yet to be fully solved, but they help provide more insight into to what types of structures were used in history.

Whether they provide hints to otherworldly ideas or were used by different civilizations, it is always interesting to know there is so much out there we still do not know.

There are so many structures, artifacts, and other items that have yet to be discovered and could help provide missing puzzle pieces as to what made up the history of the universe.

To this day, researchers continue to study previously unsolved mysteries and seek to uncover new “worlds” of information we may not have previously known.

Do you think there are logical explanations for the above discoveries? Let us know with a comment below.

Featured Image by Pixabay via Pexels/CC-0

Something on Mars is producing methane, and we don’t know what

In a breakthrough discovery, recently a European orbiter found that Mars produces methane. And if you don’t know the implications of this discovery, you’re not alone.

According to the New York Times, scientists working with the European Space Agency’s Mars Express orbiter found methane on the planet in a place called Gale Crater. Furthermore, NASA’s Curiosity rover also detected a rise in methane in the same region for more than two months in the summer of 2013.

What does this mean?

Despite the usual cultural picture of the lone, mad scientist, science is a collective work. One of the most important aspects of the scientific method is replication — making sure that someone can independently discover what you discovered. Finding methane may not have been that big a deal from either the rover or the orbiter, but it was from both.

“Our finding constitutes the first independent confirmation of a methane detection,” said Marco Giuranna, a scientist at the National Institute for Astrophysics in Italy, in an email. Dr. Giuranna is principal investigator for the Mars Express instrument that made the measurements.

The question that naturally follows from the now-certainty that there is methane on Mars is what is causing it. According to the report, methane molecules don’t hang around forever, so for us to detect it, it must have been created recently.

The findings also point to a possible source of methane about 300 miles away from Gale Crater, which would be an enticing spot for NASA’s 2020 rover to land.

Another speculation is that the source of methane is biological rather than geological. Every year, one cow alone produces 70 to 120 kg of methane. A biological source for the methane could raise the conspiratorial specter of life on Mars.

At the present moment, no one is jumping the gun to suggest that life on Mars definitively exists. However, this discovery reveals the theory to be far from implausible.

Image provided via NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/HI-RISE

“Planet Nine” likely to be found in the next decade

Nothing excites people like a planet. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) downgraded Pluto’s status to “dwarf planet,” and the internet jokes haven’t stopped since.

There’s this riff on an Eric Andre sketch:

Or this one with Pluto having a head-to-head with famed astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson:

Planet NineImage provided via Syfy Wire

Unfortunately, Pluto is on track to get its heart broken again, as researchers are hot on the trail of a brand new planet. But first things first …

What is a planet?

The same infamous IAU defines a planet as having three distinct characteristics:

  • It must orbit a star (in our case, the sun)
  • The object must be big enough to have enough gravity to force it into a spherical shape.
  • It must be big enough that its gravity cleared away any other objects of a similar size near its orbit around the Sun.

That last qualification is what got Pluto kicked out in 2006. As our understanding of the cosmos improves, our understanding of definitions changes.

What is Planet Nine?

A hypothetical planet, based on research done by Caltech astronomers Konstantin Batygin and Mike Brown. According to Space, the planet is likely to be closer and smaller than previously thought:

Observational evidence and computer-modeling work indicate that 10 Earth masses is an upper limit for Planet Nine, according to the new study. Indeed, 5 Earth masses, and an average orbital distance of 400 to 500 AU, are likely to be closer to the actual marks, the scientists found.

The most exciting news about the object is that it could be found even sooner than imagined. After outlining the planet in their study, the astronomers simply state that if it exists according to their research, it should be found within a decade.

If that happens, our solar system would once again be back to nine official planets. But no one should tell Pluto.

Image provided via Caltech/R. Hurt (IPAC)

The U.S. Government Funded a Study on Astral Projection in the 80s: The Results They’ve Kept Buried

Government conspiracies are always a fun topic.

From presidents being assassinated to political figures hiding the existence of extraterrestrial beings, it’s hard to ignore that there is potential for secrets to be kept from the public’s eyes and ears.

It would make sense, too, as there are, to the higher-ups throughout the world, pieces of information that aren’t necessary for everyone to see.

It’s a need-to-know sort of thing, and essentially, these are the real-life X-files.

Today, we’re going deep into the minds, literally and figurately, of the case studies that were conducted by the U.S. Government throughout the late 1970s and 80s regarding astral projection.

Just what is this fancy term, and why was the government so interested in what it could do? Read on to see.

What Exactly Is Astral Projection and Why Were They Studying It?

Let’s take a step back here.

Getting to this point in time, the later 1970’s, certain items had become popular (such as various recreational drugs) and the U.S. government was becoming increasingly littered with movements and scandals.

From Watergate to women’s and gay rights, along with environmental issues poking their head, there was much to discuss during this period.

Of course, we also experienced one of the craziest war-times in recent memory with the ending of the Vietnam War in 1975. This bloody battle paved the way for military branches to invest in studies and programs that looked to unlock the human mind.

One of the biggest backers of any psychological study to be done was the U.S. Army, as they had seen firsthand what it was like to experience a psychological breakdown. One of the components of psychology is the idea of consciousness.

For the military, warfare was at a turning point. Technology had been advancing faster than anyone could’ve imagined. Between the different weapons rapidly becoming available and the nuclear missiles race, a lot of military bodies were searching for a trump card for everything.

What better way than astral projection? It could be a new type of psychological warfare that the U.S. government could use to keep the American population safe and sound.

It’s no coincidence, then, that with astral projection it all comes back to the idea of human consciousness. Bear with us here as this may get a little complicated.

Defining Astral Projection in the Simplest Terms

At its core, the definition of this phenomena seems simple. Put in laymen’s terms, it’s the ability to travel out of your own body.

The best way to explain it comes in the form of a simple analogy. If you were to lay down in your bed and concentrate deeply enough to separate from your physical body in the form of an astral body, then you’d be able to complete an out-of-body experience (OBE) which is the foundation of astral travel.

The idea is that you can move around on an “astral plane,” as it’s called, to see, hear, and enter the world of celestial spheres. Overall, here you’d potentially be exposed to mystical religions and philosophies, along with the population of angels and spirits, among other beings.

What happens when you die, and where do you go? If the astral world does exist, that’s where you’d end up.

So, the astral projection would allow you to travel into the realm while you’re still able to breathe safely in this world.

If all of this sounds a bit farfetched and crazy, so if you’re thinking that you wouldn’t be wrong. In fact, as you’ll see below, there are certain items that we have access to that look to displace the theory of entering any astral area.

The Drugs Versus Natural Phenomena Debate

The biggest issue with any form of astral projection comes with proving that an OBE occurred.

How do you go about providing evidence to someone who claims to have moved from their physical self into another dimension? The answer still isn’t known, and the fact remains that anyone could claim to have an out-of-body experience without distinct evidence supporting them.

Did that stop the government from pushing this on certain people? Of course not.

Let’s take a quick step back though.

One interesting piece of information regarding any claims of astral projection comes with the use of any pharmaceutical enhancements. Certain drugs, such as DMT, ketamine, and phencyclidine, are all classified under the hallucinogenic drug tree.

These medicinal pills were often given to those with certain needs, to help them cope with everyday parts of life. Drugs are always going to be a target, of course, which makes a lot of different stories regarding these psychological tests thought-provoking.

While their experiences may suggest a form of astral travel, there’s no way of telling if it was due to the drug aid, or due to them being able to separate their body from their minds.

Why Was the Government Experimenting with This Stuff Anyway?

This is a popular question.

As we mentioned before, the biggest beneficiary of these case studies and programs were entwined with specific branches of the military. The thought was that by using astral travel throughout wars or battles, soldiers and commanders would have an upper-hand on the enemy.

Think about it: if you could stay safely within the confines of your home base, but then travel along the astral plane to an enemy’s hideout and spy on them, you’d be able to learn quite a bit about them and their tactics.

As such, it would make sense regarding the military uses.

Thus, the U.S. Army was the first branch to really push for the studying of this technology.

The Experiments Begin on Army Officers

Everything officially started back in the early 80’s and concluded with this 29-page declassified CIA document in 1983, which was formally released to the public in late 2003.

Commander Wayne McDonnell was tasked with providing evidence and thoughts on an organization’s studies to expand a person’s consciousness. They did this by “Hemi-Sync,” which was a term developed to explain synchronizing your brainwaves together.

Project Center Lane, as the operation was known, was started as the Commander deemed the Monroe Institute’s studies worth the Army’s time and money.

As such, officers were then accepted into the study, which used hypnosis techniques to aid the men in reaching that astral plane. For the U.S. Army, their main goal was to learn foreign languages and use “habit control training,” which is more than likely code for special battle skills that would benefit the soldiers.

So, What Did They Find Out About Astral Projection?

Over the course of the tests, there were 251 Army intelligence officers that were selected to be in the first year of tests. Among them, a small group of 35 were to be given a shot at astral projection, as they exhibited the traits needed for testing.

The testing was supposed to allow the officers a chance to heighten their senses, heal any wounds, and even solve problems around the world, not dictated by a physical being.

But what happened?

Unfortunately, not much.

There were a few interesting testimonies from soldiers. One, apparently, was targeted to go back in time and view Mars a striking 1-million years ago. This remote viewing process, as it was called, allowed him to see far back into our world and the world of an alien race.

It’s quite a gripping tale, honestly.

Without Any Testing, We’d Get Nowhere

At the end of all the testing and people tied up with the studies, it’s unfortunate that nothing truly concrete was found regarding astral projection.

This type of psychic ability, so to speak, could’ve transformed the way the world works.

Just remember that unless the U.S. government decides to stop testing different experiments and avenues, there are bound to be countless failures.

While there was some mild success, according to transcript details and accounts, the lack of concrete evidence makes it hard to truly buy into the whole study. It’s hard to dismiss the efforts done here, of course, but for the time being astral projection and its subsequent testing methods will have to be put on hold.

But, thanks to the government, we know at least one man got to talk to aliens.

Target keyword: astral projection

This is why most people haven’t seen extraterrestrials, and how that could change — M.E.T.I.

At any moment, mankind could receive a signal from extraterrestrial life. In the last twenty years, we have detected planets like Earth which orbit around virtually every distant star, but as of yet, we haven’t gotten a clear response. In light of this “Great Silence,” astronomers have speculated that Earth may be a kind of cosmic Eden or a “galactic zoo.” Highly advanced extraterrestrials could be watching from behind a kind of one-way mirror.

“We’ve been mindlessly pacing our Earthly cage while the extraterrestrials maintain their distance and keep watch,” suggested Seth Shostak for NBC.

Are aliens watching but operating on the code of conduct from Star Trek, the “prime directive” that forbids the Federation from interfering with alien cultures? Are these cultures so advanced that they are taking the high road, refusing to meddle in our affairs? Or are they waiting for the moment when they detect that life here has finally advanced to the point where we are finally ready to advance to the next level?

For Douglas Vakoch, the president of METI, which stand for Messaging Extraterrestrial Intelligence, the more we reach out to advanced life in the universe, the more we signal that we are ready. Our culture is no longer dangerous and fearful but open to the idea of starting up a conversation.

Vakoch suggests there is no better time to reach out than right now.

“There’s an old adage that says the best time to plant a tree was 20 years ago, and the second best time is now. Well, the same goes for interstellar messaging. The best time to transmit is right now,” says Vakoch.

Using a comparison to animals in a zoo: maybe we need to start rattling the bars.

“If a zoo animal suddenly starts barking through the bars, saying ‘I’m here and I think you’re out there,’ those on the other side might respond.”

“Simply put, METI’s deliberate transmissions might lead to a discovery of cosmic company because the broadcasts would tell the aliens that we no longer require their helicopter parenting. We’re adult enough for them to get in touch.”

The belief that our alien “zookeepers” will respond to our communication relies on reaching aliens who have more than just a passing interest in humanity. What if they know we’re here, have seen our messages, but are indifferent, apathetic, and unwilling to respond?

“My great fear in the search for extraterrestrials is extraterrestrials will be like intelligent cats. They know we’re here, but they don’t care,” said Vakoch.

Hoping to trigger a response, Vakoch and METI are working diligently to create and deliver messages that might find common ground, even to alien cultures. Some of the universal languages they think might work the best include:

  • Music
  • Math
  • Trigonometry
  • The Fibonacci Sequence
  • Pictures

If the aliens can decipher our message, then they would likely be able to respond in kind.

Of course, it’s not just METI who are reaching out to higher lifeforms in the universe. Right now there is a global competition to deliver a “New Arecibo Message” from the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. The competition is open to kindergarten students up to undergraduate students.

Staff scientist Alessandra Abe Pacini believes that kids might be better than seasoned astronomers or scientists at seeing the big picture. They might deliver a message that will inspire a response from extraterrestrials.

“Sometimes the scientists are so focused on their topics and they can see stuff very deep but they cannot see very broad,” she said. “Students know a little bit about everything, so they can see the big picture better. For sure they can design a message that is actually much more important.”

The next time you gaze out at the night sky, remember that there are infinite other planets orbiting near stars, just like our own Earth. The likelihood that we not alone in the universe is exponentially high. Likewise, the odds that alien civilizations are far more advanced than ours is almost certain. The fact that these advanced cultures have kept out of sight doesn’t necessarily mean they don’t exist, but that they have don’t believe we are ready.

Let’s face it: When you look at the state of the world today, there is not one among us who could reasonably blame them for keeping their distance.

Yet maybe if they knew how much we needed their help, our alien zookeepers might finally decide to intervene. Or, perhaps we would quickly come to regret our choice to reach out to aliens who are not zookeepers so much as intelligent and aloof alien cats?

Watch Douglas Vakoch, President of METI International, talk about his work in communicating with extraterrestrial life below:


Featured image: Screenshot via YouTube

Woman with two mutations has virtually no pain, heals faster, has little fear or anxiety

A middle-aged Scottish woman has two mutations that virtually prevent her from feeling any pain. She can eat the hottest of Scotch bonnet chili peppers whole without the slightest problem. She gave birth and never needed any painkillers, and she is blessed with having extremely low anxiety or feelings of fear. One of her genetic mutations is new to science and could be a potential breakthrough for every person on the planet who experiences chronic pain.

It reminds us of the story of Henrietta Lacks, the American woman whose immortal cancer cells transformed medical research.

Jo Cameron, 71, didn’t feel pain after hip surgery, wrist surgery, or even after giving birth to her kids.

“I felt things. I felt my body stretching. I felt peculiar feelings but no pain,” said Cameron.

Cameron’s experience of pain is so diminished that she can burn herself and only realize she has done so when she smells flesh burning.

“I broke my arm and didn’t realize for two days I’d broken my arm. I was about nine I think. It was only when my mother looked and said, ‘ There’s something wrong with your hand. We have to take you to the doctors’” that Cameron realized she was in trouble.

“It had to be re-broken because it had begun to set,” she explained.

When doing household chores, she is often in danger of hurting herself without knowing it.

“I’m ironing and quite often I’m sort of ironing away and suddenly find I’ve ironed my arm,” she said. “and it only after that I see a mark down there that I realize I’ve ironed my arm.”

For her entire life, Cameron thought her experience of pain was just normal, but then she needed an operation in her mid-60s and doctors realized there was something highly unusual going on.

“Looking back, I realize I hadn’t needed painkillers, but if you don’t need them you don’t question why you don’t.”

“You are what you are, until someone points it out you don’t question it. I was just a happy soul who didn’t realize there was anything different about me.”

After her wrist surgery, she refused painkillers, which baffled doctors at first. When Cameron insisted she wouldn’t need any meds, the doctor checked into her medical records and saw that she never once had needed them in her life, not even when she gave birth to her two kids.

Speaking about giving birth she said, “It was just strange, but I didn’t have pain. It was quite enjoyable really.”

Cameron was referred to pain researchers at two universities so that they could determine why Cameron experienced virtually no pain. They found she had two gene mutations, and one was completely new to science. One gene mutation inhibits an enzyme called LESS FAAH that works to break down a natural painkiller in the blood. The other mutation, known as FAAH-OUT, might be the first of its kind recorded.

Since she lacks an enzyme, Cameron has twice the level of natural painkiller in her body as other people. Her mutations leave her less anxious and fearful, but also cause some memory lapses. In addition, doctors think Cameron is able to heal quicker than other people.

“It’s called the happy gene or forgetful gene. I have been annoying people by being happy and forgetful all my life – I’ve got an excuse now,” she said.

Millions of people suffering from chronic and acute pain currently rely on addictive painkilling medication. Millions of others will need pain medication after undergoing surgery. Imagine if doctors find a way to turn off that pain temporarily without the use of drugs.

John Wood, a professor from Univ. College London in the Molecular Neurobiology Department is studying Cameron’s unique genetics. He says what researchers learn could have an enormous impact on millions of suffering people around the world. The findings could help people with chronic pain, post-operative pain, anxiety disorders, as well as advancing wound healing methods.

“So we hope that we’ll be able to help people in the future by harnessing the knowledge that we’ve gained by harnessing the mutation in Jo and trying to mimic it through gene therapy, or potentially in a pharmacological way,” says Wood.

Wood says he believes other people like Cameron are out there, but at the moment, she could be unique to science for having the two genetic mutations at once. However, the researchers are hoping her story will inspire others like her to come forward so that they can potentially help untold millions of people who are aging and will most likely require painkillers in order to cope.

Jo Cameron is “elated” that research into her genetics could help people all over the world.

See more from CBS This Morning:


Featured image: Screenshot via YouTube

Researchers say alien life may exist while humans live in their ‘galactic zoo’

With thousands of exoplanets confirmed to exist in our universe, the question of “why haven’t we detected alien or extraterrestrial life” still exists. To date, we as humans have yet to make contact with what we would consider alien life. Researchers have called this lack of extraterrestrial contact the “Great Silence.”

But, some researchers have a perfectly sound explanation for the silence. According to them, we may just be living in a “galactic zoo” that those same silent aliens are running, and they’re keeping silent in order to observe and research us humans – without interfering.

Sounds preposterous, doesn’t it? Well, it’s not after understanding their explanation that comes almost 70 years after the Fermi Paradox, which explains the contradictions in the astronomy that helps explain it. Named for Enrico Fermi, who created the first nuclear reactor ever to exist – the Italian physicist who asked the world, “where is everybody?” in 1950. In summary, according to Forbes, the Fermi Paradox states:

“If extraterrestrial life and even intelligent alien civilizations are not just likely, but highly probable, then why have none of them been in contact with us? Are there biological or sociological explanations for this ‘Great Silence?’”

Which brings us to the “living in a galactic zoo” part of it all… The researchers working for the Messaging Extraterrestrial Intelligence (METI) group got together in Paris to discuss just this topic. Although there are dozens of theories as to why we have yet to make contact with aliens, that we’re living in an alien zoo, the theory that METI researchers discussed in Paris, is quite intriguing and makes sense in its own way.

First hypothesized in the 1970s, the “zoo hypothesis” as it’s known, speculated that while aliens exist, they may be so much more advanced than humans that they don’t want to interfere with our development.

If you think that sounds familiar, you probably watch Star Trek, which has what’s known as the “Prime Directive.” The Prime Directive states that until a civilization acquires or creates technology that gives them “warp speed” capabilities, they cannot interfere or introduce themselves to that civilization.

Written by John Ball in 1973, who did research for MIT, the zoo hypothesis paper stated:

“Extraterrestrial intelligent life may be almost ubiquitous … The apparent failure of such life to interact with us may be understood in terms of the hypothesis that they have set us aside as part of a wilderness area or zoo.”

Ball also asked what we, as humans, would have to do to make those “galactic zookeepers” introduce themselves to us.

Just like the Drake Equation, Fermi’s Paradox and the zoo hypothesis attempts to answer the same question. Posited by Dr. Frank Drake in 1961, the Drake Equation attempted to determine what it would take to find alien life in the universe.

alien life, drake equationImage: Screenshot via SETI Institute

And, while both equations are speculation, you could say they’re educated guesses of sorts. Especially considering just how many exoplanets NASA has found, along with the evidence of water on Mars, and Enceladus, one of Saturn’s moons. This combined with our recent knowledge that extremophiles exist — organisms that live in extreme environments on Earth, or without the sun’s energy – should lend hope that alien life does exist somewhere.

But whether we as humans exist in a zoo? More speculation, of course, although to see the greatest scientific minds of our time posting such ideas makes it seem not too far-fetched to believe.

Featured Image by KellerPics via Pixabay/CC-0

Scientists Find the Remains of the Largest Bear on Earth—It Lived 700,000 Years Ago

Researchers say that they recently discovered fossils that belong to a specimen of the species of Arctotherium Angustidens, considered the most gigantic bear that ever existed. Their closest known relative is the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus).

The researchers say that the recently excavated skeletal remains are incredibly well-preserved.

The remnants of the gigantic bear were found in San Pedro, Argentina, excavated at a depth of around nine meters.

Dr. Leopoldo Soibelzon, a researcher at the Museum of La Plata and CONICET, told the news Agency CTyS-UNLaM that “it is a large bear of the species Arctotherium Angustidens, whose largest specimens, in an upright position, could reach up to 4.5 meters in height.”

Dr. Soibelzon discovered in 2011 what was then considered the largest bear on Earth.

However, the new fossils are twice as big as those discovered in 2011.

The newly excavated gigantic bear was identified as a young male that weighed approximately 800 kilos and measured approximately 2.5 meters in height, standing on its two legs.

Researchers explained that “the skull and jaw of this new specimen are incredibly preserved, while part of his pelvis, the fragment of one of its humerus, and six articulated vertebrae have all been recovered.”

The director of the Museum of San Pedro, José Luis Aguilar, who made the discovery together with Matías Swistun and Julio Simonini, agreed that “the state of preservation of the skull is impressive, we discovered its jaw and nearly all of the animal’s teeth, which makes it an exceptional example.”

“The skull of this ancient beast is really amazing in terms of size and state of conservation,” Aguilar added.

It has fangs about 6 centimeters long, which are strong, compact, pointed and were prepared to tear the flesh of its prey.”

“The jaw also retains a pair of tusks, which are 4.5 centimeters long. The molars of this bear were well adapted to cut and to destroy the muscle tissue and bones of the animals on which they fed,” Aguilar added.

Aguilar explained that the discovery would not have been possible without the collaboration of machinist Fausto Capre of the company Tosquera San Pedro SA, owner of this site.

The gigantic bear roamed the Argentinian lands more than 700,000 years ago.

The skeletal remains were found at a depth of around nine meters, where scientists also discovered evidence of an ancient Marsh.

Aguilar explained that “some of the larger animals that hunted or came to drink water, were trapped in the mud of the marsh. And that’s why we have been making various discoveries in that region for a while now.”

Mammoths are one step closer to being brought back from extinction

A new study recently published in the journal Nature reports that researchers from Japan have managed to successfully ‘restart’ 28,000-year-old cells from Woolly Mammoths implanted in Mice.

Scientists took the nuclei from the bone marrow and muscle tissue from a well-preserved woolly mammoth discovered in Siberian permafrost in 2011.

They implanted them into several dozen mouse egg cells and discovered evidence of essentials biological processes crucial for cell division to take place. Of the dozens of injected eggs, the researchers say five displayed biological reactions that happen just before cell division begins.

However, as reported by AFP, none of the injected eggs were observed to produce the necessary cell division for a mammoth rebirth.

While this is still far from scientists bringing back the extinct species to life, experts say that their research brings the one small step closer to making it happen.

The research was conducted by scientists from Japan, in participation with an international group of researchers.

“This suggests that, despite the years that have passed, cell activity can still happen and parts of it can be recreated,” explained Kei Miyamoto, a member of the team at Kindai University in an interview with AFP.

“Until now many studies have focused on analyzing fossil DNA and not whether they still function,” he added.

And while this is indeed a gigantic step towards possibly bringing a long-extinct species back to life, Miyamoto warned that their current research does not provide much hope for a Jurassic Park-style resurrection.

Not yet at least.

“We have also learned that damage to cells was very profound.”
“We are yet to see even cell divisions. I have to say we are very far from recreating a mammoth.”

Miyamoto and his colleagues at Kindai University worked with Russian institutes to study the possibility of cloning Mammoths and analyzing potential alternative methods that would allow scientists in the near future to clone and bring back prehistoric species back to life.

The results of their latest endeavor were published in the journal Scientific Reports where researchers explain that in order to make this happen, new technology is needed. Everything else is at our disposal.

“We need new technology, we want to try various approaches.”

“Our work provides a platform to evaluate the biological activities of nuclei in extinct animal species. Ancient species carry invaluable information about the genetic basis of adaptive evolution and factors related to extinction,” concluded researchers in the study.

Flat-Earthers going to Antarctica seeking ‘truth’ about our ‘flat’ Earth

A group of people known as “Flat Earthers” actually believe that the Earth is flat, regardless of what science – or their eyes – tell them. They’ve grown so distrustful of science that they believe that planning and executing an expedition to Antarctica will help them prove that the Earth is indeed flat as they claim. These Flat Earthers believe that Antarctica is indeed where the world “ends.”

Apparently, they believe that by sailing around Antarctica, they can prove that the Earth is flat. According to Jay Decasby, a major supporter of the Flat Earth theory:

“All we have to do to shut this debate down once and for all is get the distance of the coast of Antarctica. … If we can get to the coast of Antarctica and sail all of the way around it, we will get the distance that will prove it’s the outer edges of flat earth and refuse entirely every single argument anyone can possibly try to pitch for the sun-worshipping cult of heliocentrism.”

According to the Flat Earth Society website, Antarctica’s ice shelves – an Ice Wall —  are further proof that the Earth is flat because it stops explorers from going any further. The site states:

“…Along the edge of our local area exists a massive 150 foot Ice Wall… The Ice Wall is a massive wall of ice that surrounds Antarctica. The shelf of ice is several hundred meters thick.”

A variety of Flat Earthers have planned a number of expeditions to various places across the Earth – including a cruise — in an attempt to prove science wrong. While science has been wrong before, in this case, it’s been proven time and again that the Earth is indeed round. This is the reason for the globe used in education systems across the world.

Additionally, according to the report, “dozens” of scientific teams have made it across Antarctica since the very first on December 14, 1911. Another group matched the feat a month later. The most recent trek was made by Colin O’Brady, who famously crossed Antarctica in 54 days by himself. This left “proof” for both sides of the debate.

Although in the grand scheme of things, while dozens of teams have made the trek, and thousands have gone to Antarctica, very few humans have actually made it to the South Pole in Antarctica. It’s such a treacherous trek that many who have tried have died along the way.

One problem with their expedition is the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, which states that no single entity can take possession or lay claim to any part of Antarctica. While it may make an expedition difficult, it apparently bolsters the claim of the Flat Earthers that Antarctica is the edge of the Earth, proving the Earth to be flat.

This is because, according to the Flat Earthers, the treaty restricts the type and number of expeditions to the continent to explore the area, even though the treaty allows expeditions the “freedom of scientific investigation.”

As for the cruise, there’s one thing extremely awkward about it. The ship’s captain will be using a navigational system based on a round Earth. Every single navigational system works on the FACT that the Earth is round. Period. End of story. So, by embarking on the cruise, what are the Flat Earthers really proving?

Logan Paul, a YouTube Mockumentary star who is was filing a YouTube video at the Flat Earth International Conference in Denver, Colorado, talked to Robbie Davidson, and both believe the answer is yes.

Logan believes that, as a man of truth, he wants to explore the “facts.” For instance:

“…The fact that we haven’t been to the moon in over 50 years, the fact that the moon emits its own light. Some of the best scientists can’t explain gravity; Neil Degrasse [sic] Tyson, Bill Nye, in the end, do they even know? I want to explore for myself and keep an open mind. There is a stigma of being a flat-earther [sic]and if I’m going to do it I want to know the facts.”

Davidson, who is organizing the cruise, believes he has the facts already. While he’s not affiliated with the Flat Earth Society, believes that the Earth is more dome-shaped than flat, rather like a snow globe. He admits that no one is going to “fall off the edge.” Instead, he believes that squishing a dome more accurately represents what the Earth looks like and that this is the reason Antarctica is shaped the way it is at the bottom of the Earth.

The real question, especially given the treaty and the fact that their “evidence” all contradicts itself, is: Can Flat Earthers really be considered “scientific” enough to warrant an expedition to the Antarctic? Only time will tell, but one thing is for sure: Have your tin foil hats at the ready.

Featured Image by NOAA via Flickr/CC-BY-2.0

Scientists say they might have uncovered the rarest of Viking ship graves

Norwegian officials said Sunday that they might have found the burial site of a rare Viking ship using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Although they did not find an actual ship, what they did find indicates a ship may once have been there, under a burial mound, and later removed.

The site is near where scientists previously found other Viking burial mounds, so the likelihood is high that there was a ship grave here at one time.

Viking ship, burial siteImage by Niku via National Geographic

Terje Gansum, who leads the country’s department of cultural heritage of Vestfold county, said:

“The GPR data clearly show the shape of a ship and we can see weak traces of a circular depression around the vessel. This could point to the existence of a mound that was later removed.”

The area where they found the site in the Borre Park, which is southeast of Oslo, is known for other rare Viking-era archaeological finds. And, although the particular Viking ship burial mound they believe they found the site for is rare, scientists have found a few other, similar ships in the same region.

viking ship,Image by Vestfold Fylkeskommune via Phys.org

As recently as October of 2018, scientists announced they found a 65-foot long Viking ship in the same region, one of the largest scientists found.

The reason the Vikings buried the ships was typically to honor royals, burying their ships with them. Researchers believe the 65-foot-long ship was buried with a king or queen.

According to the curator of Viking ships, Jan Bill, an archaeologist from the Museum of Cultural History in Oslo, Viking burial sites that are intact are exceedingly rare. He said:

“I think we could talk about a hundred-year find. It’s quite spectacular from an archaeology point of view.”

The ship’s site is a well-known burial mound that attracts local tourists. Using GPR on 10 acres of farmland surrounding where they found the 65-foot ship burial site, scientists found evidence of at least 10 other large burial sites, including what they think is a ship’s hull.

viking ship, burial mounds, vikings,Image by Vestfold Fylkeskommune via History

Also found at the same site were burial mounds that measure about 90 feet wide, as well as a 150-foot-long longhouse and 2 other longhouses. Each one of these would likely have had someone buried inside. Scientists hope to find some of the hull preserved so they can use it to date the site more accurately, and they should be returning this spring to continue their research.

To date, only seven burial sites for Viking-era ships have been found in all of Europe, three of which are in Vestfold county, the famous Oseberg ship being one of them. That ship was found in 1904.

As for the new find, scientists hope to explore the site more in-depth to determine if a ship is still there, and what other burial mounds may exist in the same area.

Featured Image by Larry Lamsa via Wikimedia Commons/CC-BY-2.0

Woman believed to be a reptilian alien faces murder charges after her boyfriend ‘asked her to kill him’

A Pennsylvania couple broke away from an alien/reptile, Christianity-based “cult” led by a woman who believed she was the “Daughter of the Most High” and the “granddaughter of King David.”

Days later, Barbara H. Rogers, 43, shot her boyfriend, Steven Mineo, 32, in the head. She claims he asked her to pull the trigger. He was overcome with stress as the followers of the self-described prophet, Sherry Shriner, attacked the couple for leaving the group, according to Rogers.

Shriner believed that reptilian humans, the New World Order, aliens, the elite, the US government, and NATO were working together to end the world. She warned Mineo that his girlfriend was a “Vampire Witch Reptilian Super Soldier” who was trying to kill her and who would harm him. She claimed that she had seen Roger’s reptilian eyes and teeth appear in her pictures, signs she was possessed and had super strength.

“When the demon manifested in her, if it was the demon or a lizard, if she had both, a human’s no match for that kind of supernatural strength,” Shriner said.

On Monday, Rogers went to court to face murder charges in Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. Police say Rogers shot Mineo in the head at a home near Tobyhanna in July of 2017.

According to NJ.com:

“Rogers reportedly told police that Mineo was upset with members of Shriner’s following, and had asked to be killed. She also told police that Mineo said Shriner was ‘reptilian’ and pretending to be human, according to a police affidavit obtained by the Associated Press.

In the opening statements of the trial, the prosecution says the night of the shooting, Rogers, and Mineo went to a nearby bar until 2 a.m. She claimed they were not drunk, but later that night they practiced shooting his gun in the woods around their home at his suggestion. Then they went back inside, where Rogers claims Mineo held her hand on a gun as he pointed it at his head. Then she claims he told her to pull the trigger.

In a call to 911 at 2:25 a.m. on Saturday, July 15, 2017, Rogers said:

“My boyfriend had a gun. He told me to hold it here and press the trigger. Oh my God, he’s dead!”

Barbara H. Rogers with Steven Mineo via Facebook

She claimed she didn’t know the gun was loaded and says it was an accident, but the prosecution says it was murder. Rogers could have avoided killing Mineo. He was shot in the forehead at close range, possibly directly against his head, according to court records.

Rogers declined to accept a plea deal from the judge to accept third-degree murder charges.

The couple’s falling out with the Sherry Shriner followers began in April 2017, when Shriner noticed a Facebook post by Rogers. In the post, Rogers talked about having a craving for raw meat and steak tartare. Shriner and her followers immediately saw it as a sign that Rogers was not human but a reptilian alien.

“This is the best thing ever with cut up minced garlic,” Rogers wrote. “I just crave raw meat all the time for some reason. I know some are grossed out by it. But its a delicacy for me.”

Shriner said she tried to warn Mineo about his girlfriend, but Mineo was offended. After all, he had purchased “orgone” from Shriner, a superpowered substance she claimed would ward off reptilian humans. If Rogers were a reptile, then surely the orgone would have protected him.

“’Orgone kills them,’ Mineo wrote of the mystical substance that supposedly destroys reptilians. ‘The heavenly father knows that she’s not a reptilian. We’ve been friends for a long time and I always supported you. Out of all due respect, I do take offense to this.’”

The dispute started a rift with the Shriner group, and afterward, Mineo decided he would expose Shriner as a fraud. He uploaded videos to YouTube, in which he claimed: “Sherry Shriner Supporters Are Mentally Sick.” In his final video, four days before his death, Mineo said angry Shriner followers were attacking them.

After Mineo’s death, Shriner created a new video explaining she did not believe she was leading a cult, and that she had tried to protect Mineo.

“I warned Steve Mineo she was a Vampire Witch Reptilian Super Soldier… and now he’s DEAD because he wouldn’t listen.”

Sherry Shriner via Facebook

According to Rogers, her boyfriend believed it was Shriner who was a reptile.

“The Defendant explained that the cult centers on ‘Aliens and raptures’. Recently they became upset with Shriver. The victim believed that contrary to her appearance, Shriver was actually ‘reptilian’.”

The Daily Beast reported that Mineo was the second person from the cult-like group to be killed at a young age. Five years before Mineo’s death, 22-year-old Kelly Pingilley died after swallowing 30 sleeping pills. Shriner claimed that a “NATO death squad” killed Pingilley because she believed in the god Yahuah.”

Pingilley had given up going to college to work as a transcriber for Shriner’s radio show Aliens in the News. After going on expeditions with Shriner to save the world from the New World Order, Pingilley committed suicide at an isolated wildlife park. Hunters found her body the next morning. She wore a pendant of orgone.

“One week before her death in December 2012, Pingilley said the apocalypse was near. Yahuah had shown her a strange symbol, which foretold invasion by an alien race that would eat and enslave humans, she wrote.”

Pingilley’s brother said he worried his sister may have suffered from undiagnosed schizophrenia. Shriner said that Kelly had been trying to kill her on orders from the Obama White House, but Kelly had refused to carry out orders.

“’Obama is on the march folks if you’re not with him and the Alien New Age you’re against them,’ she warned in the dark eulogy. ‘They have their lists, and they’re going to work on them… Kelly’s death is a wake-up call that they are after Yah’s people.’”

Steve Mineo posted Shriner’s bizarre eulogy to the Truth Seekers Blog on behalf of Sherry Shriner. A few years later he would denounce the group and end up dead himself. Mineo had been a follower of Shriner since 2004.

In January 2018, social media posts suggest that Shriner passed away. Her followers have suggested her death involves conspiracy theories after her work to expose Vice President Pence.

Is Mike Pence’s daughter a vampire? She doesn’t show up in the mirror!! Pretty crazy eh….we know they use clones of…

Posted by Sherry Shriner on Wednesday, November 2, 2016


Featured images: Screenshots via Facebook, Reptilian eye via Pixabay

The Rose of Jericho, a Desert Plant Capable of Resurrection

The Rose of Jericho, also known as the resurrection plant has the ability to survive desiccation.

Completely different from the traditional rose we know; this plant has a very particular property, it can “come back to life”.

When speaking of roses, the beautiful flower of various colors comes to mind.

But not all Roses are red…..Violets are blue, Sugar is sweet,
And so are you.

In the ancient deserts of Arabia and Asia, as well as near the Red Sea, there is a very curious plant called the Rose of Jericho or the Resurrection planet.

The small gray plant tends to curl its branches and seedpods inward during the dry season and lack of water.

It forms a ball that only opens when moistened.

The plant has been found to be able to survive for years and years in that form.

For long periods of time this peculiar plant, which lives in arid regions, grows and reproduces until the environment becomes unfavorable.

At that moment the flowers and the dry leaves fall, the roots untie and the dry branches bend, forming a “ball” that allows the wind to transport it across the terrain.

According to botanists, the Roses of Jericho can be transported for kilometers, living in dry and unfavorable environments, without any water, for a long time, until it finds a humid place. If still rooted when moistened, it spreads into a green plant as much as 30 cm (1 foot) wide and bears minute white flowers.

When this happens, the plant sinks its roots into the soil and opens up, flourishing again.

The drying and greening process of the planet is completely reversible and can be repeated various times.

The ability of the plant to do this is thanks to the presence of trehalose, a disaccharide sugar involved in various mechanisms of cryptobiosis, a state that consists of the suspension of metabolic processes, in which some living beings enter when environmental conditions become extreme and unfavorable. Trehalose is used by other planets, bacteria, and fungi as a source of energy.

The trehalose molecule protects the plant by stabilizing proteins and preserving its cell membranes.

In ancient times, the plant was used to predict the climate.

In dry weather the plant remains completely closed; in wet weather, it opens slowly; if it threatens to rain, it opens in a very showy way and with more or less speed according to the proximity of discharge of the clouds.

Rotating black holes might serve as portals for hyperspace travel

According to a new Business Insider report, scientists have always been a little fuzzy on the concept of black holes. Largely, it was thought that black holes, given their incredible mass, would kill you upon entry. But through simulations, physicists have come up with different possible outcomes for entering a black hole. The reason is simple.

The event horizon is on the edge of a black hole. It’s the point beyond which matter or energy entering cannot reach the escape velocity necessary to leave. So naturally, scientists initially posited that crossing it would be instant death. Now, they’re not so sure.

A team of scientists at UMass Dartmouth and Georgia Gwinnett College have run simulations on this theory and what they found was surprising, to say the least.

“He [Lior Burko, a scientist on the study] added that passing through a weak singularity is like quickly running your finger through a candle flame that’s 1,000 degrees Celsius. If you hold your finger in the flame long enough, you’ll get burned, but pass your finger through quickly, and you’ll barely feel a thing.”

Through these simulations, researchers have discovered that it technically might be possible to enter a black hole and live. And that begs the question of what’s inside of them.

Burko suggests that the black holes might plop you out on another side of the galaxy, or even scarier, a different galaxy altogether.

However, this discovery is limited to a specific type of black hole — rotating.

According to the BI report, one of the safest paths to a black hole trial might be Sagittarius A, a black hole at the center of the Milky Way.

It’s important to note that Burko and his colleagues have only discovered that technically, if you enter a black hole, you may not die and may be transported to a different galaxy.

That still leaves quite a few kinks to work out on the road to hyperspace travel.

Image via NASA

Scientists Reveal The Earth May Soon Run Out Of Fresh Water

A new study considers the increase in world population and climate change as the main causes of this worrying issue. Scientists used a number of global climate models to project future climate scenarios while factoring in data on expected population growth.

According to experts, the USA has 204 basins that supply the country with fresh water.

Of these, 96 would not be able to comply with the usual supply after 2071, reveals a study by Earth’s Future.

In the new study, scientists indicate the main cause of this problem climate change and the increase of the population.

“There’s a lot of the US over time that will have less water,” one of the researchers, economist Thomas Brown from the US Forest Service told Reuters.

In his opinion, the most affected basins will be those of the center and south of the Great Plains, the southwest and the center of the Rocky Mountain region, California, some areas of the south, such as Florida, and the Midwest.

The new study explains that water stability in the US was achieved in the 1980s, after years of increased demand which saw water usage surge ninefold since the turn of the 20th century.

But thanks to advances in dams, tunneling, and pipelines, water usage has been relatively stable and without concerns despite a growing population, the researchers explain.

However, they explain that with reservoir construction peaking in the 1960s, those adaptations will not be able to deliver the same results in the near future.

“Although studies show that climate change is likely to bring increasing precipitation in many areas of the contiguous 48 states of the [US], especially in northern regions, other areas are expected to receive less,” the authors wrote in the study.

Climate change will play a huge role in the potential development of the freshwater crisis, not experts.

“Furthermore, increasing temperatures, which are expected everywhere in the US, will tend to lower streamflow via the effect of temperature on evaporative demand, in some areas completely negating the positive effect of increasing precipitation and leading to decreasing streamflow.”

But how do we stop the issue from being a global crisis?

To reverse this situation, scientists explained it is necessary to modify our water-using customs.

Fundamentally in agriculture, they point out, which is responsible for 75% of annual freshwater consumption in the US, and in industry.

Therefore, Brown and his team explain that we need to change the way we utilize freshwater. We also need work on increasing the efficiency of its use, by reformulating current utilities.

Not long ago, reservoir construction mas a massive boost to water stability. But the world is not the same place it was a few decades ago.

The planet is becoming hotter and drier, and researchers say dams will be less useful compared to other 21st century adaptations, such as boosting irrigation efficiency.

“Where water is the limiting factor, a reservoir enlargement is unlikely to store any water,” Brown explains.

The findings are reported in Earth’s Future.

Long-lost box with artifacts from King Tut’s tomb found

Experts have recently revealed a box filled with objects that had been recovered a long time ago from King Tut’s Tomb.

It contained pieces of a miniature model boat, buried with Pharaoh Tutankhamun. The boat was meant for king Tuts fishing trips in the afterlife, say experts.

Image: The newly rediscovered mast and boat pieces belonged to the boat in the foreground, meant for King Tut’s afterlife. Image Credit: Luxor Museum

Howard Carter packed the box, containing a number of ancient Egyptian items. Carter, a British archaeologist, discovered and first opened the tomb of the Pharaoh in 1922.

The artifacts were discovered tucked away in the storeroom at the Luxor Museum, by the museum’s director of archaeology and information, Mohamed Atwa, according to Live Science.

“It’s the most exciting discovery in my career,” Atwa revealed in a statement. “It’s amazing that after all these years we still have new discoveries and new secrets for this golden king, Tutankhamun.”

Atwa found the box while preparing an exhibition for the Great Egyptian Museum (built next to the Pyramids), which will open in Giza next year.

It contained a wooden mast, a rigging set and a miniature wooden head covered with gold leaf, all wrapped in a newspaper dated Sunday, November 5, 1933.

According to the archives of the museum, the box was believed lost since 1973.

Tutankhamun ruled of the land of the Pyramids between 1341 and 1323 B.C., and was a teenager when he died.

The discovery of King Tut’s tomb in the Valley of the Kings was a milestone in the history of Egyptology that soon was surrounded by legends and enigmas.

The last of the mysteries surrounding the tomb of Tutankhamun was unveiled in 2018, when a study ruled out the existence of hidden chambers inside the tomb, discarding the hypothesis that Nefertiti might be buried next to the “child pharaoh.”

Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten (formerly Amenhotep IV) and one of Akhenaten’s sisters or cousins.

As a prince, Tutankhamun was referred to as Tutankhaten.

When taking the throne, Tutankhamun married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun.

After a few years of rule, Tutankhamun decided to reverse several changes made during his father’s reign.

With suggestions coming from his advisors, King Tut ended the worship of the god Aten (implemented by Akhenaten) and restored the god Amun to supremacy.

The ban on the cult of Amun was also lifted, monotheism forced on the people of ancient Egypt by Akhenaten was canceled out, and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood.

The capital of ancient Egypt was moved back to Thebes, and the city of Amarna (built by Akhenaten) was eventually abandoned.

How much does the Milky Way weigh? Astronomers reveal surprising results

Astronomers from NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) have been able to determine that the Milky Way weighs about 1.5 Trillion solar masses and has a radius of 129,000 light years from the galactic center.

The recently obtained numbers are far more concrete than those that until now were handled.

Previously, astronomers believed that the Milky Way’s weight ranged between 500 billion to 3 trillion Solar Masses. In 2016, measurements revealed a more accurate number suggesting the Milky Way’s weigh was just around 700 Billion Solar Masses.

But even that was far from accurate it turns out.

“We simply cannot observe dark matter directly,” Laura Watkins, of the European Southern Observatory in Germany, said in a statement.

“That is what leads to uncertainty regarding the mass of the Milky Way: you cannot accurately measure what you cannot see,” adds the astronomer, who led the new study.

But just because you can’t weigh dark matter doesn’t necessarily mean there are no other ways to find the weight of our galaxy.

Watkins and her colleagues resorted to another method, consisting in measuring the speed of the so-called globular clusters: dense accumulations of stars orbiting the center of the galaxy.

According to N. Wyn Evans of the University of Cambridge, “the more massive a galaxy is, the faster its clusters move under the force of its gravity.”

“Most previous measurements revealed the speed at which a cluster is approaching or receding from Earth, that is the velocity along our line of sight. However, we were able to measure the sideways motion of the clusters, from which the total velocity, and consequently the galactic mass, can be calculated.”

The astronomers used data from ESA’s Gaia mission to measure globular clusters in a radius of 65,000 light-years from Earth, as well as data from Hubble, NASA, and ESA, to measure clusters in a radius of up to 130,000 light-years from our planet.

Astronomers used data gathered by the Gaia mission (Gaia’s second data set) as well as observations made by Hubble to calculate the weight of the galaxy.

ESA’s Gaia mission was launched in an effort to create the most accurate 3D map of the Milky Way.

By combining the measurements of 34 globular clusters (Gaia data) with data of another 12 distant global clusters (thanks to Hubble) the team was able to determine the mass of the Milky Way “in a way that would be impossible without these two space telescopes.”

Astronomers believe that by accurately determining the mass of the Milky Way they will get “a clearer understanding of where our galaxy is located in a cosmological context.”

Final Supermoon of the Year Will Coincide with an Asteroid Passing Close to Earth

The third supermoon of the year, known as the ‘Full Worm Moon’ will take place today, March 20 marking the Spring Equinox, the first day of Spring.

The March Supermoon is called after Native Americans’ traditions of predicting seasonal changes and is popularly known as the ‘Full Worm Supermoon’.

However, it is also referred to as the Crow Moon, Crust Moon, Sap Moon or Sugar Moon.

According to astronomers, the moon will appear brightest at around 01:43 GMT.

The Supermoon will also coincide with an asteroid passing close to Earth.

The third supermoon of 2019 is referred to as the ‘Full Worm Super Moon’ after the Native Americans’ seasonal observations where worms are seen emerging from the ground at the start of Spring.

According to Moongiant,  northern tribes in the US referred to the event as the Crow Moon, when the cawing of crows signalized the end of winter, and start of spring.

But this year’s supermoon is also called an “equinox” moon since it takes place on the same day as the spring equinox.

NASA announced the event on Twitter:

“Today’s full Moon is also… wait for it… a supermoon! The moon is close to its perigee, which is the closest point in its orbit to Earth. This means this full moon appears brighter and bigger than other full moons throughout the year,” the space agency wrote.

The event will be a remarkable one, not only because we’ll observe a supermoon, and the spring equinox, but because the rising full moon will look a bit larger and brighter than usual, as Earth’s satellite is near its closest approach to Earth on its monthly way around our planet.

The March 20 event comes soon after January’s stunning “Super Blood Moon Eclipse” and February’s “Super Snow Moon.”

But what is a Supermoon? 

No, it is not when the moon gets special powers and turns into a superhero.

In fact, astronomers don’t call it a supermoon, they just refer to it as a… wait for it… full moon.

But moons and events that happen with the moon tend to get different nicknames and names since time immemorial. (It’s in the human nature to dramatize and elevate things, I guess…)

The term Supermoon isn’t an actual astronomical term.

A Supermoon is a term used to describe our satellite at its perigee; the closest approach of the moon to the Earth on its monthly, elliptical orbit.

The point when the moon is located at its furthest point away from the Earth is called an apogee.

The Asteroid

The March Supermoon will also coincide with an asteroid zipping past Earth. Don’t worry, it isn’t a doomsday scenario.

As explained by CNN, the space rock 2019 EA2, will pass by Earth at 190,246 miles away — closer than the moon.

It’s approximately 79 feet in diameter, which means it is a bit larger than the asteroid that streaked through the sky over Chelyabinsk, Russia in 2013, creating a massive explosion in the sky.

Astronomer predicts ‘halo drive’ will be able to power planet-sized spacecraft travel for free

The problem of how to power spaceships for long journeys into space could have just been solved by an astronomer at Columbia University in New York, David Kipping. His idea: To power spaceships up to the size of whole planets, you can harness the extreme gravitational forces of black holes with a “halo drive,” a boomerang of photons shot from a laser. No more running out of fuel, it’s easy “light sailing” so long as you stay within the interstellar highways near optimal black holes, taking full advantage of a gravitational assist.

Kipping noted on Twitter that a major inspiration was the Dyson Slingshot, an idea from the 1960s by physicist Freeman Dyson. Dyson, now 95, believes that space travel could be powered by gravitational slingshots created near massive planets or black holes, something that has proven true when NASA sent the Voyager and Galileo spacecraft to Jupiter. The unmanned ships were able to accelerate without propellant thanks to Jupiter’s size and orbital speed around the sun of 13.1 kilometers per second.

However, the problem with flying spaceships nearing black holes is extreme: too close and they are destroyed. Kipping’s new idea is to avoid sending the ship and instead send out photons via a laser which get trapped in a circular orbit, returning safely to the ship. Then the ship can harness the amped-up energized photons with solar sails or other means, pushing even the largest of spacecraft along at relativistic speeds without the need for any other source of fuel.

“If we can’t build engines with the power levels that we need, maybe we could borrow it from the universe. Maybe we could steal it from a star, more specifically, a dead star,” said Kipping.

The astronomer says that black holes that move in orbit around another object or another black hole would be the best ones to target. That way, halo drives could harness even higher levels of energy.

As a fascinating side-note, if Kipping’s idea holds true then that points to the possibility that extraterrestrials may also target these black-hole “binary systems” to power their spacecraft. So locating these systems would be the perfect spot to look for evidence of interstellar highways.

Kipping described what the maneuver might look like for an astronaut approaching such systems.

“You monitor the orbiting black holes closely and at just the right moment, you fire your laser straight down at one of the black holes. More specifically, you fire it at the black hole moving towards you,” said Kipping.

If the laser beam missed the event horizon or center, then the beam would be bent around the black hole and continue traveling back to the spaceship. The light becomes “blueshifted,” taking on more kinetic energy but traveling at the same speed of light.

“Because you expended no fuel in the act of accelerating, you can essentially accelerate any mass object you want so long as the mass of that object is much lower than that of the black hole. So yes, that means in principle you could accelerate a planet-sized spacecraft to relativistic speed for free.”

To help narrow down the field of 10 billion binary black-hole systems in the Milky Way alone, astronomers could look for the few perfect trajectories created by binary black-hole systems that can act both as accelerators and decelerators for traveling spaceships.

Although it’s amazing to think that we may have already envisioned a means of free interstellar transportation, there is, of course, the initial fuel cost of traveling to the binary black-hole system, to begin with. Perhaps the halo drive will give future astronauts the incentive they need to carry out such an ambitious mission.

See Kipping discuss the Halo Drive below:


Featured images: Screenshots via YouTube

Scientists Create DNA Molecule That Could Help Find Alien Life

Scientists are finally starting to think as scientists should in terms of alien life. As a result, they’ve synthesized an “artificial” molecular system that handles information much in the same way that a typical DNA molecule does. This has led to a number of different theories, not the least of which includes the argument that life might not be what we think it is elsewhere in the universe.

Until now, most scientists assumed that anything that was considered life would be confined to the limits of what we, humans, know life to be. This means examples of life should be carbon-based, breathe some sort of oxygen, and live in an environment such as that created by what they call the “Goldilocks zone.”

The problem with this theory is that we’ve already found forms of life on Earth that don’t conform to these base theories of what life should be like. Scientists have previously found what’s called “anaerobic” life, which includes organisms that do not need oxygen in any form to survive. Scientists have found this type of life

Another example is called an “extremophile,” or an organism that can convert bacteria into energy, without the use of the Sun to do so. These particular organisms include various fish, crabs, shrimp, and tube worm species that live deep at the bottom of the oceans, usually around methane seeps, under high pressure and temperatures.

So, the question that always remained was: If we found life on Earth that doesn’t live in an environment that conforms to what humans think of as “habitable” conditions, what makes us think that life simply MUST exist elsewhere in the same way we do?

Because of extremophiles and this discovery, we can’t any longer, and scientists are finally starting to admit that alien life may exist in other forms. That is, in forms that don’t conform to what we naturally think of as habitable or life as we know it. They’ve made a serious breakthrough as a result.

This brings us to the synthesized molecule, which the researchers are calling “hachimoji,” a name that translates to “eight-letter” in Japanese.

Receiving funds from NASA, a scientific team from Alachua, Florida, led by Steven Benner from the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, was able to think outside the box and create the new molecular system that works in the same way that a DNA molecule does. This feat allowed the scientists to finally realize that DNA-based life as we know it may not be the only type of life there is in the universe.

Benner said:

“By carefully analyzing the roles of shape, size and structure in hachimoji DNA, this work expands our understanding of the types of molecules that might store information in extraterrestrial life on alien worlds.”

We all know that DNA is made up of four chemicals called nucleotides. These are AGCT, or adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, and those chemicals are paired to create unique DNA sequences that make each organism different.

dna molecule“Normal DNA” Image: Screenshot via YouTube Video

The difference between the new molecule and typical DNA molecule is how many chemicals the new form contains. While DNA as we know it contains four, the synthesized DNA contains eight, and it works the same way as typical DNA, as it contains the same four nucleotides. However, the synthesized DNA molecule contains four extra informational chemicals designed to “mimic the structures of the informational ingredients in regular DNA,” according to the report.

dna molecule, normal dna,“New DNA Molecule Nucleotides” Image: Screenshot via YouTube Video

According to acting director Lori Glaze from NASA’s Planetary Science Division:

“Life detection is an increasingly important goal of NASA’s planetary science missions, and this new work will help us to develop effective instruments and experiments that will expand the scope of what we look for.”

Speculating further, the new molecule could have the potential to store and transmit double the amount of information. Alternatively, it could have the capacity to create life forms that we as humans could never dream of. Theoretically, of course.

With this breakthrough, scientists have no choice but to think outside the box when it comes to looking for life elsewhere in the universe. Or, if you will, outside of what we think of as “life,” or “habitable environments.”

For more information on this breakthrough watch this video:

Featured Image: Screenshot via YouTube Video

Scientists could bring back the dinosaurs in as little as a couple of years

American paleontologist, Dr. Jack Horner, 72, was the inspiration for the character of Dr. Alan Grant in the first Jurassic Park movie. Director Steven Spielberg asked him to be a consultant and he excitedly agreed. Five movies later, the premise of the movies is closer to becoming a reality. Living breathing dinosaurs could be running around in a lab before we know it. Who knows. Maybe they already are.

Horner predicted that the concept depicted in the movies, bringing dinosaurs back to life from DNA, would be achieved in five to ten years during a PEOPLE magazine interview from 2015. That means today we could be just one year away from seeing it happen, as teams of scientists from Harvard and Yale have been busily working away at it.

However, over the course of the Jurassic Park movies, the idea for how to bring the dinosaurs back changed dramatically. In the movies, the dinos were created in a lab using ancient DNA found in fossils. Today, that option has been all but ruled out since the DNA, even in the best-preserved specimens is extremely degraded. Instead, scientists can work with DNA that is perfectly intact and probably within just a short distance from you as you read this.

Scientists need not look for DNA in fossils, but in the living dinosaur relatives flying all around us: the birds. Birds, such as chickens, are believed to be the direct descendants of the dinosaurs. Although they may not look like it, their DNA retains the genes of dinosaurs. Now all that is left to do is reverse engineer a “Chickenosaurus” from a chicken. Flipping a genetic switch, they turn on and express the dinosaur traits that lay dormant.

The scientists have already made strides in mutating chickens in the lab, although we don’t know exactly how far they have managed to go.

In a recent podcast for Futureproof, Dr. Horner elaborated on how scientists hope to reverse engineer dinosaurs from living birds.

“We tried many times to get dinosaur DNA out of a dinosaur and we did fail. We just never were able to find it,” said Dr. Horner.

“But living birds are the descendants of dinosaurs, and in fact, we classify birds as avian dinosaurs. In other words, as an actual group of dinosaurs. And so, since they are a group of dinosaurs, they actually have dinosaur DNA.”

According to Horner, hollow bones, feathers, wishbones, and the three-toed foot are all characteristics of birds that were first “invented” or implemented by the dinosaurs. Today’s birds visibly retain those traits, but hiding on their DNA are other traits only the dinosaurs had, such as long bony tails. In fact, birds start growing a boney tail as embryos in the egg but then the gene is “turned off,” and suppressed. Horner says the scientists can find a way to turn the dinosaur genes back on.

Other traits they hope to express are the dinosaur mouth rather than the bird-like beak. The end result will be a bird with a Velociraptor-like snout. Next, they could bring back clawed dinosaur arms, devolved from wings with flight feathers.

“You couldn’t make any of these changes if evolution didn’t work. The whole point is to see if we can retro-engineer a dinosaur-like animal out of a modern living animal,” said Horner.

Of course, the idea is controversial with ethical issues, just like in the movies.

“It’s controversial and some people say ‘Why would you do that?’ And I say, ‘Who would want to make a chihuahua out of a wolf?’ But they did. We have this tendency to want to change the animals we have.”

There are many critics of the idea of recreating the dinos, including Jeff Goldblum, who played Dr. Ian Malcolm in Jurassic Park. Responding to an Entrepreneur article about the subject, he quoted one of his character’s lines on Twitter this month:

“Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether or not they could, they didn’t stop to think if they should…”

Regardless, scientists are moving full-steam ahead with the Chickenosaurus, while other Harvard scientists work to bring back Wolly Mammoths by inserting their genes into modern-day elephants.

Of course, if scientists can reverse engineer a dinosaur from a bird, then what’s to say they can’t reverse engineer a human into a primitive ancestor with gills? Like Jurassic Park, there is already a movie that touches on that as well, The Shape of Water.

See Dr. Jack Horner discuss bringing dinosaurs back to life below:

More about reptile-bird hybrids from the Smithsonian channel below:


Featured image: Screenshot via YouTube

Israeli spacecraft launched ‘Lunar Library’ into space to preserve our legacy

A Los Angeles-based non-profit inspired by Elon Musk’s favorite book has sent a “Lunar Library” into space aboard an Israeli spacecraft called the SpaceIL “Beresheet” lunar lander. It’s currently orbiting the earth and is set to land on April 11, 2019. The library contains a backup of human knowledge should our civilization collapse.

Never fear, if mankind manages to bring on the apocalypse, whoever survives need only fly to the moon to go to the library. The library was inspired by a classic work of science fiction.

Both Elon Musk and Los Angeles’ Arch Mission Foundation co-founder Nova Spivack are inspired by Issac Asimov’s “Foundation” novel series. The works were written in 1951 at the height of the Cold War. In the seemingly prescient books, Asimov tells the tale of a group of scientists who work together to preserve the collected works of humanity as intergalactic civilizations collapse at the height of their influence à la Rome. The scientists believe that preserving human knowledge will jumpstart civilization again from the impending dark ages.

Factors like climate change, environmental degradation, bureaucracy, social inequality, and war currently threaten civilization on Earth. Similar to Asimov’s book characters, Spivack and The Arch Mission Foundation (AMF) has prepared a “civilization backup” to disperse across the solar system. The archive spans 5,000 years of human knowledge, has 30-million pages, and will find a home on the Moon, but also on this planet in caves, mountaintops, and even underwater.

According to How Stuff Works, the data includes a little of everything:

“What the Arch Mission Foundation’s team of scholars and scientists have deemed to be humanity’s most important knowledge come in the form of open data sets from the Wikimedia Foundation, The Long Now Foundation, Project Gutenberg, and the Internet Archive, as well as many other data sets, contributed by individuals and organizations. Basically, it’s the proverbial kitchen sink of information crammed into 25 DVD-sized disks made of pure nickel, each only 40 microns thick.”

Futurist entrepreneur, Nova Spivack, discussed the project on Twitter. He sees what he’s doing as ensuring the future of the human race.

“As a futurist, I can tell you with certainty, that in the future, they got a lot of things wrong about the past. Unless we do something to help the future recall the past better, today. Help us save humanity. To disc.”

Spivack believes that extraterrestrials may have likewise left an archive for human explorers to find.

“The mere fact that @archmission is sending an archive to the Moon, for beings millions of years in our future, means there is a higher probability that there may be another archive somewhere on the Moon, left for us by someone else, millions of years ago. #mindbender”

The Moon is just one of the locations for the archive. For example, a test run for a much bigger project called the Billion Years Archive was already launched into orbit around the sun by Elon Musk. A similar archive was placed in the red Tesla convertible sports car. A spacesuit-wearing mannequin named Star Man sits behind the wheel.

So just in case we manage to screw everything up here at home, there will be a wealth of information available should any survivors have the wherewithal to make it into space. Is it oddly comforting to know a record of our civilization will exist across the solar system? You decide.

Below, Bill Nye checks out the library with Spivack.

Below is the location where the Lunar Libary will be located when the Beresheet lunar lander touches down in April.

See more from TomoNews US below:


Featured image: Screenshot via YouTube